The second module of How to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. focuses on six transformations. These are, according to Jeffrey Sachs, the systems-level transformations necessary to achieve the SDGs:

  1. Education, Inclusion, Jobs, and Growth
    1. Universal education
      Guarantee access to primary and secondary education. Ensure that everyone has the skills to succeed in a digital economy.
    2. Gender fairness
      Ensure that parents keep their daughters in school. Empower women to earn income.
    3. School-to-work transition
      Help graduates find jobs. Mentions Germany’s apprenticeship program as a model to be copied.
    4. Labor standards
      Eliminate forced labor, slavery, and child labor.
    5. Innovation
      Invest money in research and development. Build research institutions and a research culture.
  2. Health and Wellbeing
    1. Universal health coverage
      Train nurses and doctors in all areas. Provide public health insurance system.
    2. Integrated health system
      Health outreach, data analysis, and education through community health workers and apps.
    3. Social health
      Needed transformation not described
    4. Environmental health
      Prepare for environmental threats: air and water pollution, heatwaves, etc…
  3. Clean Energy and Industry
    1. Zero-carbon electricity
      Transition to wind, solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, biofuel, ocean, and nuclear power. Improve storage and long-distance electricity transmission to counteract weather-based fluctuations.
    2. Electrification of appliances
      Move consumers to electric choices, such as electric cars. Figure out clean energy solutions for air transport and container ships.
    3. Energy efficiency
      Smarter appliances and buildings, so less energy is needed to begin with.
    4. Industrial pollution
      Use biodegradable materials. Recycle waste. Promote green chemistry. Transition to circular economy.
  4. Sustainable Food and Land Use
    Agriculture is probably the greatest reason for environmental problems: Greenhouse gas emissions, loss of biodiversity, and pollution
    1. Sustainable food systems
      Use more-productive crops. Increase yields. Reduce post-harvest losses. Promote restoration and reforestation.
    2. Strong boundaries
      Protect certain regions from agriculture. Limit the amount of fishing.
    3. Diet
      Reduce meat consumption.
    4. Supply chains
      Increase responsibility of entities for the supply chains they are involved in.
    5. Planning
      Systematic land-use planning for food, habitat, and carbon storage. Set clear boundaries.
  5. Smart Cities and Transport
    1. Smart infrastructure
      Transition to all-electric cities. Promote electric vehicles and electric public transport. Expand green spaces.
    2. Zoning patters
      Move to high-density, walking cities. Increase mix-used housing.
    3. Information and communication
      Expand broadband internet access. Make city data available for business, research, and citizens.
    4. Resilience
      Implement food-control measures. Implement sustainable water use to combat droughts. Prepare for sea-level rise.
    5. Intercity transport and infrastructure
      Set up electric rail systems and intercity fiber connections. Manage shared water effectively.
  6. Digital Technologies and E-Governance
    1. Access to Internet
      Grant universal access to the Internet.
    2. Identity
      Establish safe, reliable, and private online identity for citizens (such as the Aadhaar system in India).
    3. Online payments
      Enable digital access to financial and banking services.
    4. Governance
      Make government services available online. Enable e-voting. Strengthen citizen privacy.